Specifications Manual for Joint Commission National Quality Measures (v2020A)
Posted: August 1, 2019
Discharges 01-01-20 (1Q20) through 6-30-20 (2Q20)

Release Notes:
Measure Information Form
Version 2020A

Measure Information Form

Measure Set: Substance Use Measures (SUB)

Set Measure ID: SUB-2

Set Measure ID Performance Measure Name
SUB-2 Alcohol Use Brief Intervention Provided or Offered
SUB-2a Alcohol Use Brief Intervention

Performance Measure Name: Alcohol Use Brief Intervention Provided or Offered

Description:
SUB-2         Patients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use who received or refused a brief intervention during the hospital stay.
SUB-2a          Patients who received the brief intervention during the hospital stay.

The measure is reported as an overall rate which includes all patients to whom a brief intervention was provided, or offered and refused, and a second rate, a subset of the first, which includes only those patients who received a brief intervention. The Provided or Offered rate (SUB-2), describes patients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use who received or refused a brief intervention during the hospital stay. The Alcohol Use Brief Intervention (SUB-2a) rate describes only those who received the brief intervention during the hospital stay. Those who refused are not included.

Rationale: Excessive use of alcohol and drugs has a substantial harmful impact on health and society in the United States. It is a drain on the economy, and a source of enormous personal tragedy (The National Quality Forum, A consensus Report, 2007). In 1998 the economic costs to society were 185 billion dollars for alcohol misuse and 143 billion dollars for drug misuse (Harwood 2000). Health care spending was 19 billion dollars for alcohol problems and 14 billion dollars was spent treating drug problems.

Nearly a quarter of a trillion dollars per year in lost productivity is attributable to substance use. More than 537,000 die each year as a consequence of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use, making use of these substances the cause of one out of four deaths in the United States (Mokdad 2004).

An estimated 22.6 million adolescents and adults meet criteria for a substance use disorder. In a multi-state study that screened 459,599 patients in general hospital and medical settings, 23% of patients screened positive (Madras 2009).

Clinical trials have demonstrated that brief interventions, especially prior to the onset of addiction, significantly improve health and reduce costs, and that similar benefits occur in those with addictive disorders who are referred to treatment (Fleming 2002).

In a study on the provision of evidence-based care and preventive services provided in hospitals for 30 different medical conditions, quality varied substantially according to diagnosis. Adherence to recommended practices for treatment of substance use ranked last, with only 10% of patients receiving proper care (Gentilello 2005). Currently, less than one in twenty patients with an addiction are referred for treatment (Gentilello 1999).

Hospitalization provides a prime opportunity to address the entire spectrum of substance use problems within the health care system (Bernstein 2005).

Type Of Measure: Process

Improvement Noted As: Increase in the rate

Numerator Statement:
SUB-2:   The number of patients who received or refused a brief intervention.

SUB-2a:   The number of patients who received a brief intervention
Included Populations:

Sub-2
Patients who refuse/decline the offered brief intervention.

Sub-2a
Not Applicable

Excluded Populations:

SUB-2 and SUB-2a
None

Data Elements:

Denominator Statement: The number of hospitalized inpatients 18 years of age and older who screen positive for unhealthy alcohol use or an alcohol use disorder (alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence).
Included Populations: Not applicable

Excluded Populations:
  • Patients less than 18 years of age
  • Patients who are cognitively impaired
  • Patients who refused or were not screened for alcohol use during the hospital stay
  • Patients who have a duration of stay less than or equal to one day and greater than 120 days
  • Patients receiving Comfort Measures Only documented

Data Elements:

Risk Adjustment: No.

Data Collection Approach: Retrospective data sources for required data elements include administrative data and medical record documents. Some hospitals may prefer to gather data concurrently by identifying patients in the population of interest. This approach provides opportunities for improvement at the point of care/service. However, complete documentation includes the principal or other ICD-10 diagnosis and procedure codes, which require retrospective data entry.Some hospitals may prefer to gather data concurrently by identifying patients in the population of interest. This approach provides opportunities for improvement at the point of care/service. However, complete documentation includes the principal or other ICD-10 diagnosis and procedure codes, which require retrospective data entry.

Data Accuracy: Data accuracy is enhanced when all definitions are used without modification. The data dictionary should be referenced for definitions and abstraction notes when questions arise during data collection.

Measure Analysis Suggestions: None

Sampling: Yes. Please refer to the measure set specific sampling requirements and for additional information see the Population and Sampling Specifications section.

Data Reported As: Aggregate rate generated from count data reported as a proportion.

Selected References:
  • Bernstein J, Bernstein E, Tassiopoulos K, Heeren T, Levenson S, Hingson R. Brief motivational interventions at a clinic visit reduces cocaine and heroin use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005 Jan 7;77(1):49-59.
  • Fleming MF, Mundt MP, French MT, Manwell LB, Stauffacher EA, Barry KL. Brief physician advice for problem drinkers: Long-term efficacy and cost-benefit analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002 Jan;26(1):36-43.
  • Gentilello LM, Ebel BE, Wickizer TM, Salkever DS Rivera FP. Alcohol interventions for trauma patients treated in emergency departments and hospitals: A cost benefit analysis. Ann Surg. 2005 Apr;241(4):541-50.
  • Gentilello LM, Villaveces A, Ries RR, Nason KS, Daranciang E, Donovan DM Copass M, Jurkovich GJ Rivara FP. Detection of acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependence by trauma center staff. J Trauma. 1999 Dec;47(6):1131-5; discussion 1135-9.
  • Harwood, HJ, 2000. Updating Estimates of the Economic Costs of Alcohol Abuse in the United States. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Available from: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/economic-2000/, Office of National Drug Control Policy. The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States: 1992–2002. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President (Publication No. 207303), 2004.
  • Havassy BE, Alvidrez J, Owen KK. Comparisons of patients with comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders: implications for treatment and service delivery. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Jan;161(1):139-45.
  • Jonas DE, et al. Behavioral Counseling After Screening for Alcohol Misuse in Primary Care: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:645-654.
  • Kirchner JE, Owen RR, Nordquist C, Fischer EP. Diagnosis and management of substance use disorders among inpatients with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv. 1998 Jan;49(1):82-5.
  • Madras BK, Compton WM, Avula D, Stegbauer T, Stein JB, Clark HW. Screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) for illicit drug and alcohol use at multiple healthcare sites: Comparison at intake and 6 months later. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Jan 1;99(1-3):280-95. Epub 2008 Oct 16.
  • McGlynn EA, Asch SM, Adams J. The Quality of Healthcare Delivered to Adults in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 26;348(26):2635-45.
  • Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004 Mar 10;291(10):1238-45.
  • Prochaska JJ, Gill PH, Stephen E, Hall SM. Identification and Treatment of Substance Misuse on an Inpatient Psychiatry Unit. Psychiatr Serv. 2005 Mar;56(3):347-9.
  • Smothers BA, Yahr HT, Ruhl CE. Detection of alcohol use disorders in general hospital admissions in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Apr 12;164(7):749-56.
  • The National Quality Forum, National Voluntary Consensus Standards for the Treatment of Substance Use Conditions: Evidence-Based Treatment Practices; A Consensus Report; 2007.
  • Whitlock EP, Polen MR, Green CA, Orleans T, Klein J. Behavioral Counseling Interventions in Primary Care To Reduce Risky/Harmful Alcohol Use by Adults: A Summary of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:557-568.

Measure Algorithm:

Measure Information Form SUB-2
CPT® only copyright 2019 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Specifications Manual for Joint Commission National Quality Measures (v2020A)
Discharges 01-01-20 (1Q20) through 6-30-20 (2Q20)

LICENSE FOR USE OF CURRENT PROCEDURAL TERMINOLOGY, FOURTH EDITION (“CPT®”)

CPT® only copyright 2019 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. CPT® is a registered trademark of the American Medical Association.

You, your employees and agents are authorized to use CPT® only as contained in The Joint Commission performance measures solely for your own personal use in directly participating in healthcare programs administered by The Joint Commission. You acknowledge that the American Medical Association (“AMA”) holds all copyright, trademark and other rights in CPT®.

Any use not authorized herein is prohibited, including by way of illustration and not by way of limitation, making copies of CPT® for resale and/or license, transferring copies of CPT® to any party not bound by this Agreement, creating any modified or derivative work of CPT®, or making any commercial use of CPT®. License to use CPT® for any use not authorized herein must be obtained through the American Medical Association, Intellectual Property Services, AMA Plaza, 330 North Wabash Avenue, Suite 39300, Chicago, Illinois 60611-5885. Applications are available at the American Medical Association Web site, www.ama- assn.org/go/cpt.

U.S. Government Rights This product includes CPT® which is commercial technical data, which was developed exclusively at private expense by the American Medical Association, 330 North Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611. The American Medical Association does not agree to license CPT® to the Federal Government based on the license in FAR 52.227-14 (Data Rights - General) and DFARS 252.227-7015 (Technical Data - Commercial Items) or any other license provision. The American Medical Association reserves all rights to approve any license with any Federal agency.

Disclaimer of Warranties and Liabilities. CPT® is provided “as is” without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Fee schedules, relative value units, conversion factors and/or related components are not assigned by the AMA, are not part of CPT®, and the (AMA is not recommending their use. The AMA does not directly or indirectly practice medicine or dispense medical services. The responsibility for the content of this product is with The Joint Commission, and no endorsement by the AMA is intended or implied. The AMA disclaims responsibility for any consequences or liability attributable to or related to any use, non-use, or interpretation of information contained or not contained in this product.

This Agreement will terminate upon notice if you violate its terms. The AMA is a third party beneficiary to this Agreement.

Should the foregoing terms and conditions be acceptable to you, please indicate your agreement and acceptance by clicking below on the button labeled “accept”.

^