Measure Information Form
**NQF-ENDORSED VOLUNTARY CONSENSUS STANDARDS FOR HOSPITAL CARE**
Measure Information Form
Measure Set: Hospital Based Inpatient Psychiatric Services (HBIPS)
Set Measure ID: HBIPS-4
Performance Measure Name: Patients discharged on multiple antipsychotic medications
Description: Patients discharged from a hospital-based inpatient psychiatric setting on two or more antipsychotic medications
Rationale: Research studies have found that 4-35% of outpatients and 30-50% of inpatients treated with an antipsychotic medication concurrently received 2 or more antipsychotics (Covell, Jackson, Evans, & Essock, 2002; Ganguly, Kotzan, Miller, Kennedy, & Martin, 2004; Gilmer, Dolder, Folsom, Mastin, & Jeste, 2007; Kreyenbuhl, Valenstein, McCarthy, Ganocyz, & Blow, 2006; Stahl & Grady, 2004). One study reported 4.6% of patients concurrently received 3 or more antipsychotics (Jaffe & Levine, 2003). These findings are seen across diverse sectors: state mental health authorities, the Veterans Health System and Medicaid-financed care. Antipsychotic polypharmacy can lead to greater side effects, often without improving clinical outcomes (Ananth, Parameswaran, & Gunatilake, 2004; Stahl & Grady, 2004). As a result, a range of stakeholders have called for efforts to reduce unnecessary use of multiple antipsychotics (Centorrino, Gören, Hennen, Salvatore, Kelleher, & Baldessarini, 2004; Gilmer, Dolder, Folsom, Mastin, & Jeste, 2007; National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, 2001; University HealthSystem Consortium, 2006). Practice guidelines recommend the use of a second antipsychotic only after multiple trials of a single antipsychotic have proven inadequate (American Psychiatric Association [APA] Practice Guidelines, 2004). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide some evidence to support augmentation with a second antipsychotic in treatment resistant patients. Most of these studies were limited to augmentation of clozapine with another second-generation antipsychotic (Tranulis, Skalli, Lalonde, & Nicole, 2008). Among patients without a documented history of previous treatment failures of antipsychotic monotherapy, multiple RCTs and other controlled trials failed to show a benefit of antipsychotic polypharmacy over monotherapy (Ananth, Parameswaran, & Gunatilake, 2004; Centorrino, Gören, Hennen, Salvatore, Kelleher, & Baldessarini, 2004; Potkin, Thyrum, Alva, Bera, Yeh, & Arvanitis, 2002; Shim et al., 2007; Stahl,& Grady, 2004). Clinical circumstances, such as shorter inpatient stays, may require hospitals to discharge a patient on multiple antipsychotics with an aftercare plan to transition to monotherapy. In such cases, effective communication between the inpatient and aftercare clinician is an essential element of care.
Type of Measure: Process
Improvement Noted As: Decrease in the rate
| Set Measure ID
|| Performance Measure Name
|| Multiple Antipsychotic Medications at Discharge- Overall Rate
|| Multiple Antipsychotic Medications at Discharge- Children (1 through 12 years)
|| Multiple Antipsychotic Medications at Discharge- Adolescent (13 through 17 years)
|| Multiple Antipsychotic Medications at Discharge- Adult (18 through 64 years)
|| Multiple Antipsychotic Medications at Discharge- Older Adult (≥ 65 years)
| Numerator Statement:
Risk Adjustment: No.
Data Collection Approach: Retrospective data sources for required data elements include administrative/billing data and medical records.
Data Accuracy: Hospitals may wish to implement periodic audits to monitor and ensure data accuracy.
Measure Analysis Suggestions: For quality improvement purposes, the measurement system may want to create reports to identify patients discharged on two or more antipsychotic medications without appropriate supporting documentation. This would allow healthcare organizations to target education efforts.
Sampling: Yes. For additional information see the Sampling Section.
Data Reported As: Aggregate rate generated from count data reported as a proportion.
Psychiatric inpatients discharged on two or more routinely scheduled antipsychotic medications
Included Populations: Not applicable
Excluded Populations: None
Psychiatric inpatient discharges
- Patients with ICD-9-CM Principal or Other Diagnosis Codes for Mental Disorders as defined in Appendix A, Table 10.01 discharged on one or more routinely scheduled antipsychotic medications (refer to Appendix B, Table 10.0- Antipsychotic Medications)
- Patients who expired
- Patients with an unplanned departure resulting in discharge due to elopement
- Patients with an unplanned departure resulting in discharge due to failing to return from leave
- American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2004). Steering Committee on Practice Guidelines. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, second edition. Am J Psychiatry. 161(2 Suppl):1-56
- Ananth, J., Parameswaran, S., & Gunatilake, S. (2004). Antipsychotic polypharmacy comparing monotherapy with polypharmacy and augmentation. Curr Med Chem. 11(3):313-327 Curr Pharm Des. 10(18):2231-2238.
- Centorrino, F., Gören, J.L., Hennen, J., Salvatore, P., Kelleher, J.P., & Baldessarini, R.J. (2004) Multiple versus single antipsychotic agents for hospitalized psychiatric patients: a case control study of risk versus benefit. Am J Psychiatry. 161 (4):700-706.
- Covell, N.H., Jackson, C.T., Evans, A.C., & Essock, S.M. (2002). Antipsychotic prescribing practices in Connecticut’s public mental health system: rates of changing medication prescribing styles. Schiz Bull. 28(1):17-29,
- Ganguly, R., Kotzan, J.A., Miller, L.S., Kennedy, K., & Martin, B.C. (2004). Prevalence, trends, and factors associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy among Medicaid-eligible schizophrenia patients, 1998-2000. J Clin Psychiatry. 65(10):1377-88.
- Gilmer, T.P., Dolder, C.R., Folsom, D.P., Mastin, W., & Jeste, D.V. (2007), Antipsychotic polypharmacy trends among Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia in San Diego County, 1999 - 2004. Psychiatric Serv. 59(7):1007-1010.
- Jaffe, A.B. & Levine, J. (2003). Antipsychotic medication co-prescribing in a large state hospital system. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf.12:41-48.
- Kreyenbuhl, J., Valenstein, M., McCarthy, J.F., Ganocyz, D., & Blow, F.C. (2006). Long-term combination antipsychotic treatment in VA patients with schizophrenia. Schiz Res.84:90-99.
- National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD). (2001).Technical report on psychiatric polypharmacy. Alexandria, VA.
- Potkin, S.G., Thyrum, P.T., Alva, G., Bera, R., Yeh, C., & Arvanitis, L.A. (2002). The safety and pharmacokinetics of quetiapine when coadministered with haloperidol, risperidone or thioridazine. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 22:121-130.
- Shim, J.C., Shin, J.G., Kelly, D.L., Jung, D.U., Seo, Y.S., Liu, K.H., et al. (2007). Adjunctive treatment with a dopamine partial agonist aripiprazole, for treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: A placebo controlled trial. Am J Psych.164:1404-1410.
- Stahl, S.M. & Grady, M.M. (2004). A critical review of atypical antipsychotic utilization: comparing monotherapy with polypharmacy augmentation. Curr Med Chem.11:313-327.
- Tranulis, C., Skalli, L., Lalonde, P., & Nicole, L. (2008). Benefits and risks of antipsychotic polypharmacy. An evidence based review of the literature. _Drug Saf. 31_(1):7-20
- University HealthSystem Consortium. (2006). Mental health performance measures field brief. Oakbrook, IL.